A Finnish sniper during the Winter War against Stalin; it started on 30 November 1939 till 1940. Apparently Simo Hayha would fire his rifle in the sitting position; he managed 25 kills a day with an over all 500 kills throughout the war. Hayha would be wearing a white mask like the one you see; he would fill his mouth with snow to hide the steam from his breath and didn't use scopes because the light reflection would give away his position.
GLOBAL VOICES ADVOCACY
"IF YOU WANT PEACE PREPARE FOR WAR" ("SI VIS PACEM PARA BELLUM," OR "IGITUR QUI DESIDERAT PACEM, PRAEPARET BELLUM") Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus
August Browne: The Nigeria-born man who joined the Polish resistance
Cameroon born Sam Sandi, fought with the French he was ferocious fighter during WW1 in Europe (article in French)
Sudanese born Josef Diak . I can't find any more information on him
HAILE SELASSIE (BELOW), ETHIOPIA'S LAST GREAT EMPEROR.
hr What was the importance of Haile Selassie I to the Re-africanization of Ethiopia in the 20th century
MUSTAFA KEMAL - ATATURK…he liberated Turkish women.
Public Domain, Link
Atatürk's Reforms Empowered Turkish Women and Set an Example for the Developing World - Ataturk Society of America - Ataturk Society of America
Pontian Greek Girl students of Trebizond (modern Trabzon). Upright second left: Valentini Theofylaktou.
Hatı Çırpan, 1935 One of the first female muhtars and MPs of Turkey
Safiye Ali, the first Turkish female doctor.
By Unknown - Original from the then "Secretaría de Prensa y Difusión" (now "Secretaría de Medios de Comunicación") of the Argentinian Government. Published 1947., Public Domain, Link
Juan Peron with his second wife Eva (Evita)
We think the late Argentinian President Juan Peron got this right: In 1971, from his exile in Madrid, he would remember: “(…) See, it is no secret to anyone that when World War II ended in 1945, Yankee imperialism and Soviet imperialism met in Yalta … They make the talks (…) and divided the world… They draw the lines and said: from here to there it’s yours, from here to there is for us… the lines where Soviet imperialism should govern, and the others for the Yankee imperialism. Both drew the lines for avoiding jurisdictional conflicts (…). “
His thought is not usually studied in deep by the Argentinean scholarship. But General Perón elaborated a complex doctrine, with a deep humanistic vision, endowed with a great understanding of the national and the international, which has not yet been fully dimensioned and implemented. He forecasted at the same time the fall of the USSR and the crisis of capitalism.
Persepolis was the most magnificent city in the Ancient World, and it was destroyed by that runt Alexander of Macedon
CYRUS THE GREAT THE FATHER & LIBERATOR
The Iranians regarded him as "The Father"; Babylonian as "The Liberator”, Hellenes as 'Law-Giver'; and the Jews as 'The Anointed of the Lord’.
By Charles F. Horne - Charles F. Horne, ed., The Sacred Books and Early Literature of the East, (New York: Parke, Austin, & Lipscomb, 1917), Vol. I: Babylonia and Assyria, pp. 460-462; The Bible (Douai-Rheims Version), (Baltimore: John Murphy Co., 1914), Public Domain, Link
Cyrus the Great,(for some reason many people prefer more authoritarian than democratic regimes, but authoritarian ones can only work if the autocrat is wise, tolerant and incorruptible; Cyrus the Great - audiobook).
Ancient History Persian Empire Documentary
A BRIEF HISTORY OF HUMAN RIGHTS
……"From Babylon, the idea of human rights spread quickly to India, Greece and eventually Rome. There the concept of “natural law” arose, in observation of the fact that people tended to follow certain unwritten laws in the course of life, and Roman law was based on rational ideas derived from the nature of things…..”
“….Cyrus built his empire by first conquering the Median Empire, then the Lydian Empire, and eventually the Neo-Babylonian Empire. ... Cyrus the Great is also well recognized for his achievements in human rights, politics, and military strategy, as well as his influence on both Eastern and Western civilizations…..”
"He changed the small country of Persia to a powerful empire in a vast territory. No other government had reached this level of authority in the world till then.
His ethical values had made him a well-behaved emperor with humble policies and favorable method by which he treated the conquered nations…….
"The world was dominated by brutal arrogant rulers who didn’t care about their nations’ rights. In fact, they oppressed everyone with sheer rigidness to put awe in their hearts. Cyrus changed all such mannerism. When the final years of Medes’ domination were accompanied by oppressing people and treating them unfairly, the level of injustice was so high and suppression so severe that Median people had no choice but to wait for someone to save them from their brutal ruler. Cyrus turned to be this savior character. When he came to power, the new situation couldn’t corrupt him and make another monster out of him. Instead, he won lots of hearts and gained many nations’ respect for his mannerism. Cyrus united Medes with Persians...……Cyrus allowed the nations under the Persian Empire to keep their religions, traditions, dress code, language, etc. He didn’t force the ideas, rituals, and beliefs of Persians to the rest of the world. However, today we see that there are lots of powerful influences of Persian culture outside the present boundaries of Iran in a vast area…; The mighty rulers before him…..create heaps of corpses to demonstrate their power to the subject nations. They burned the people alive in the fire, gouged their eyes, cut their tongues and boasted of the number of young girls and women imprisoned and taken away by their brutal soldiers. On the contrary, he didn’t carry out bloodshed, plunder, brutality, etc to prove his power. He established a government that tried hard to found unity and peaceful coexistence among nations from India to the Mediterranean Sea. To win people’s support, he used a different policy: He supported their rights, promoted justice and worked for their prosperity. Rahman Mehraby "
The Importance of Cyrus the Great in Iranian History
CYRUS THE GREAT AND RELIGIOUS TOLERANCE
The Cyrus Cylinder and the ancient proclamation of human rights
Ashoka the Great
Started off as a tyrant but eventually after Kalinga (Kalinga ancient region, India) he stopped his warmongering and ruled peacefully and well
By <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/en:Abanindranath_Tagore" class="extiw" title="w:en:Abanindranath Tagore">Abanindranath Tagore</a> - <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O82525/print-asokas-queen/">https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O82525/print-asokas-queen/</a>, Public Domain, Link
Examples of authoritarian regimes where human rights are irrelevant:
…PUTIN WHO THINKS HE'S CHANGED RUSSIA FOR THE BETTER:
Kremlin resettles to Crimea 108,000 Russian nationals to change demographics – Yelchenko
Russia slanders Crimean Tatar Mejlis & openly lies about Odesa, MH17 at Hague Court
Questioning Putin's past (Marina Yevgenyevna Salye (19 October 1934 – 21 March 2012) was a Russian geologist and a former deputy of the legislative assembly of Leningrad)
Sal'ye Commission Documents
Ukraine War - Last statement of Valeriya Novodvorskaya on Russian intervention into Ukraine
Russia quietly moves border hundreds of yards into occupied Georgia
Orders to Kill: The Putin Regime and Political Murder - book by Amy Knight
The late Boris Nemtsov’s Papers on Putin: (Putin):"As for my personal perception, I’m not ashamed to say to the citizens who voted for me, that throughout these eight years, I have worked like a galley slave. I am pleased with the results of my work….” ...poor Putin slaving away for all this:
20 palaces and villas: with opulent fittings worthy of an emperor
43 aircraft including an airliner that features an $11 million cabin fitted out by jewelers -and that toilet which, the report says, cost close to $100,000
53.7-metre yacht: with designer interior, a spa pool, waterfall and wine cellar
11 luxury watches
Five-decked yacht: with a jacuzzi, barbecue, a maple wood colonnade and a huge bathroom faced in marble
(NOT EVEN KHODORKOVSKY LIVED LIKE THIS WHEN HE WAS THE RICHEST MAN IN RUSSIA)
Ji Jinping the Great SOB:
(Ji offers promises and threats as he calls China’s unification with Taiwan inevitable) Will the West once again be distracted by Trump and his escapades, and ignore Taiwan as we did Ukraine with Crimea?
The present Chinese government, rightly, despises the UK for it’s brutal colonization of the World; now it is they who are planning to overrun the planet like ants…..
TAIWAN (Online News):
Radio Free Asia
The Next China Threat: An Invasion of Taiwan?
Journalists Imprisoned in China
Shen Yun seems like a kitsch dance troupe. But Beijing sees it as the propaganda wing of the Falun Gong movement, and a threat to their rule – and hounds the dancers from city to city, trying to sabotage their shows. By Nicholas Hune-Brown
China Is Buying Land in Africa and South America to Ensure Its Food Supply
The large numbers of Falun Gong prisoners in custody has led researchers to identify them as a likely source for organs. According to Gutmann's research, other marginalized prisoner groups may also have been targeted, including ethnic Tibetans and Uyghurs who reside predominantly in China's western regions.” Wikipedia
No escape: The fearful life of China's exiled dissidents
List of Chinese dissidents
Ji Jinping's ego knows no bounds: Han Dynasty - Ancient History Encyclopedia
Students for a Free Tibet (SFT)
QUEEN VICTORIA AND THE CRIPPLED KAISER (The Kaiser, fraught with psychological problems, led his country (and Europe) to a disastrous mess).
Did the Germans purposefully arrange to send Lenin to Russia to start a revolution? (an example of how something can cause greater damage than that intentended):
The Germans wanted to disable Russia to win the war but later this backfired: it came back to bite them after the Soviet/Bolshevik (Stalin was still around) victory of WWII, losing some of their country to the Soviets. (Hitler ignored some of his history).
Kaiser “Willie” (apparently the cousins addressed one another in such endearing terms) who was partly to blame for starting WWI, after he lost the war was graciously allowed to live the rest of his life in the Netherlands in peace and, I guess, as an honoured guest. King “Georgie” and Mary of England refused to give refuge to his cousin Tzar “Nicky”, and the whole Russian family were all later assassinated by the Bolsheviks (this is one difference between the West and Dictatorships - this happened often in the West during the Middle Ages). To add insult to injury King Georgie’s wife Mary bought some of the dead Tzarina’s jewels ?. Whether this was done in an ethical manner or not I still find it very distasteful that this woman could wear the jewels of a dead relative who was brutally murdered thanks in part to her [Matriarch: Queen Mary and the House of Windsor]).
[HELEN RAPPAPORT, in her latest book “The Race to save the Romanovs” opposes the theory that the fault rests on the British Monarchy]
Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna (The Tzar’s Sister; she lived her last days in Ontario Canada)
The Queen's Mother in Law (Prince Philip’s mother)
Queen Victoria's Last Love (Abdul Karim)
Documentary on the Varangian Guard:
Ancient Black Ops S01E06 The Varangian Guard
Three Brits who made their names away from home; tragically all three died young:
Sir Alexander Burnes who was Scottish (Afghanistan)
Sikunder Burns: Master of the Great Game
Sir Isaac Brock (Canada)
By Isaac_Brock_portrait_1,_from_The_Story_of_Isaac_Brock_(1908).jpg: Portrait was made long before actual book, authored by Walter R. Nursey (1847-1927)
derivative work: Muckapedia (talk) - Isaac_Brock_portrait_1,_IMG_0150.PNG_The_Story_of_Isaac_Brock_(1908).jpg, Public Domain, Link
Portrait, from The Story of Isaac Brock (1908) by Walter R. Nursey
A version of Lossing's engraving (in wood) of Shawnee chief Tecumseh with water colors on platinum print after a pencil sketch by French trader Pierre Le Dru at Vincennes, taken from life about 1808. For origins and likeness, see the Commons description of Lossing's work.
Isaac Brock and Tecumseh
Summer 1812: British General Isaac Brock and Shawnee Leader Tecumseh form an alliance
The Invasion of Canada: 1812-1813
Secord led through the woods by Mohawk warriors (Henry Sandham, c. 1910)
Francis Cromie (Imperial Russia) Biography of Francis Cromie by Roy Bainton: Honoured by Strangers: Captain Cromie’s Extraordinary First World War
By Unknown - 17 April 2014 (original upload date) by Nightsturm including original description.
Photograph (author unknown), which was made available to the public (e.g. by publication or display at an exhibition) more than 70 years ago (before 1 January 1944) in the publication: Hoare, Sir Samuel (1930) "XIII. A BRITISH AND A RUSSIAN HERO - CROMIE" in The Fourth Seal, London: William Heinemann Limited, p. 277, Public Domain, Link
World War 1’s Hidden Hero The Submarine Massacre of 1915
E-19 – Submarine Massacre
At the same time E18 was out on her patrol E19, (Francis Cromie) was also prowling the Baltic on his first patrol. On the 3rd October the German merchant vessel, S.S Livonia/Sviona  (depending on your source) was shelled by E19. The merchant ships crew manage to beach the Livonia north of Sassnitz. Seven days later, between the 10th and 11th October, E19, was to go onto sink four ore ladened ships and damaged a fifth ship.
On the stormy morning of the 11 October E19 was patrolling the northern area of the Baltic Sea, south of the Swedish island Öland. E19’s haul for the day started with the sighting of the German steamer Walther Leonhardt, loaded with iron ore from Sweden.The crew was ordered into the lifeboats and to approach the submarine. Having examined the ship papers, commander Cromie had the steamer sunk by an explosive charge placed in the hold. Once the ship had been abandoned E19 stopped a passing Swedish freighter and asked them to take the German crew on board.
Her next victim was the Germania, also carrying iron ore from Sweden. Having witnessed the earlier sinking, the 3000 ton Germania tried to escape. But E19 gave chase at full surface speed, 15 knots, while firing her the deck gun. After an hour, the steamer ran aground near the Swedish coast and the submarine crew boarded her. Attempts were made to tow her off, but finally a dynamite charge was used to try and destroy the ship, but it failed to sink her. The steamer was later to be salvaged and repaired.
With it yet to be midday, now came the turn of the Gutrune, south of Öland. The Gutrune was bound from Lulea tor Hamburg also carrying a cargo of iron ore. Cromie ordered the ship to hove to and dispatch a boarding party to inspect the ship papers. Once the Gutrune’s crew were safely in the lifeboat, the ship was sunk by opening the bottom valves and circulation pumps. The ship took her time to sink, but E19 had to hurry off towards another ship that had been sighted. This time it was a Swedish Nyland freighter headed for Holland, so she was allowed to pass unharmed.Later on in the 11th E19 sighted and ordered the SS Director Reppenhagen ore to hove too or to be torpedoed. Once the crew of were safely in the ships boats, the ship was sunk,by scuttling. The crew were transfered to a passing neutral ship.
E19’s next victim on the 11th at 17:30,was the Nicomedia with yet another cargo of ore from Sweden.After a short chase the German steamer stopped and a boarding party was sent over to inspect her papers. In the politeness of the time, the boarding party asked of their prizes captain, “Excuse me, sir, can we sink his ship?” During the inspection, invited the E-19 boarding party to a glass of beer (it was a different world and time then!) and sent a barrel of German beer over to the the submarine . Having enjoyed the beer, the German crew took to the lifeboats and their ship was sunk south of Oland, Sweden, using charges.
The 11th October 1915, was to a day when E19 sank five ships without the use of one single torpedo and single human life .Between the 18th and 19th October 1915 E9 was to have a similar period if success as her sister, when she intercepted four German steamers. Each ship was hailed in international waters. After inspection a decision was made to sink her, the crew was given time to enter the lifeboats.
The above happened in October 10th - 11th, 1915
The Lusitania was sunk on May 7th 1915
Public Domain, Link
Pyotr Nikolaievich Wrangel
General Peter Wrangel, a dashing figure who fought the Bolsheviks during Russia’s civil war, symbolizes in many ways a Russia that might have been. A legend surrounds Wrangel, the White commander who in 1920 sailed away across the Black Sea with the last of the anti-communist forces for a life of exile. His aura of courage, charisma, and incorruptibility was only enhanced by the mystery of his untimely death in 1928, shortly after his memoirs were published. For many exiled Russians, his death shattered the last hope of returning to the Motherland. He became the emblem of a lost cause. (It is believed Wrangel was poisoned at Stalin’s orders).
Public Domain, Link
ALWAYS WITH HONOUR/Pyotr Nikolaievich Wrangel (Memoirs)
Allied Intervention In the Russian Civil War
Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim (If Mannerheim turned to Hitler during WW2 it was to protect Finland from the Soviets, otherwise he did not like Hitler at all. The Allies did the opposite by siding with the murderer Stalin which makes them no better. The Putin regime is trying to whitewash Stalin’s deeds and calls Mannerheim a Nazi; maybe there’s anger because the Finns put up a damn good fight even when being out gunned and out manned (sisu a uniquely Finnish quality; the word used to typify the Finnish spirit; 11 Insane Facts About Simo Hayha, The Deadliest Sniper In World History. Had not Stalin so stupidly executed some of his best officers and commanders during the 1930s Great Terror the Soviet Union may not have been so humiliated).
Battlefield Scandinavia the Forgotten Front Finnish Winter War
Fire And Ice the Winter War of Finland and Russia Original
Fire and Ice - The Winter War of Finland and Russia (Long Version)
Finnish Sniper • Simo Hayha • The White Death
How "White Death" Simo Hayha Became The Deadliest Sniper In History
Winter War and Simo Hayha (film clip)
Hayha after the war; disfigured from a bullet
"Sir Max Hastings is an author, journalist and broadcaster whose work has appeared in every British national newspaper."
The deadliest sniper of WWI was (Canadian) Francis Pegahmagabow, an Ojibwa (1st Nations) soldier
By Canadian government - http://indigenouswarhero.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/2001062042.jpg, Public Domain, Link
The Polish King Jan III Sobieski (1629-16). Jan Sobieski: The Polish King Who Saved Europe
King Jan III drove back the Ottoman Turks (the Siege of Vienna, 1683) (The Siege of Vienna/John Stoye [free download]) (The Siege of Vienna/Madame Pichler, free download) thus preventing them from entering Western Europe; I wonder if Hitler and his Nazis knew that part of their history; if not then perhaps they may not have hated the Poles so much
Polish codebreakers 'cracked Enigma before Alan Turing'
THE POLISH PILOTSWHO FLEW IN THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
Why did we humiliate the Polish aces after their Battle of Britain heroics? How an ungrateful nation wanted to deport the men our women fell for and Hitler feared
CZECHOSLOVAK PILOTS AMONG THOSE HONOURED AT BATTLE OF BRITAIN MUSEUM
The Secret Betrayal
The European Atrocity You Never Heard About : In the largest episode of forced migration in history, millions of German-speaking civilians were sent to Germany from Czechoslovakia (above) and other European countries after World War II by order of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union.
Britain’s Cossack Betrayal
Victims of Yalta: The Secret Betrayal of the Allies, 1944–1947 by Nikolai Tolstoy
Nadezhda Durova: Ukrainian/Russian Cavalry Maiden in the Napoleonic Wars
Н.А. Дурова «Кавалерист-девица». Часть первая. Детские лета мои.
By Achille Devéria. Posteriormente coloreado a mano por un autor desconocido - http://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/portraitLarge/mw150782/Ann-Zingha, Public Domain, Link
Queen Nzinga: A Ruler who Set her People Free
Trung Sisters Of Vietnam: National Heroines That Stood Against Cruel Chinese Occupation Of Their Country
Trung Sisters Rebellion History of Ancient Vietnam
Vasili Arkhipov - Russian who stopped WW3 - “Thank you Vasili Arkhipov” by Edward Wilson
Stanislav Petrov - The man who may have saved the world
A Turkish official, tormenting starving Armenian children with a piece of bread. (Wikipedia)
Eight Armenian Professors:
By Amēnun taretsʻuytsʻě : zbōsali u pitani. 1921 - http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.b4078540, Public Domain, Link
The Armenian Genocide
The books by Taner Akcam (Picture below)- a courageous man - are particularly interesting to me because he is Turkish: the Turkish Government denies the Armenian Genocide, and Nazi Germany used this concept against all the people they thought expendable….
Aykan Erdemir (below) (Foundation for Defense of Democracies) Dr. Erdemir was awarded the Stefanus Prize for Religious Freedom in recognition of his advocacy for minority rights and religious freedoms.
King Leopold II of Belgium
Genocide in Soviet Karelia
Stalin's Terror and the Finns of Soviet Karelia
- Stalin's Famine-Genocide in Ukraine
East Timor: Media Turned Their Backs on Genocide
Italian Fascists in Ethiopia
Ethiopia’s Red Terror Survivor to Document Atrocities Online
Mao's Famine Literature about Pol Pot Hitler's Genocide
Deportation of Crimean Tatars ordered by Stalin
Putin Resurrects Stalinist Policy Towards Crimean Tatars
Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People
CHAMERIAN GENOCIDE BY GREECE
Massacres during the Greek War of Independence
The following examples show how Orthodox countries in the Near East largely helped protect European Western Christianity:
The Battle of Famagusta (Cyprus)
The Chios Massacre of 1822 (The West did not learn from this; decades later was the Armenian Genocide. Again, Western Europe hardly reacted)
Smyrna was both a Christian and Muslim cosmopolitan city, vibrant and wealthy; this is an example of multiculturalism which, although fragile, is far more productive and interesting than bland homogeneity:
Occupation of Smyrna
Great Fire of Smyrna
Teaser trailer for the animated short Tokei Maru, animated and directed by Zachos Samoladas
The Jihad Against the Armenian, Assyrian, and Greek Christians
Cultural Genocide of Tibet Canada Tibet Committee Bystanders to the Holocaust: A Re-evaluation/David Cesarani Genocide Book Lists - Goodreads Popular Genocide Books - Goodreads End Genocides
Kristallnacht of Constantinople ( Shocking Images of Infamous 1955 Anti-Greek Riots in Istanbul )
Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire,
The Turkish Kristallnacht, by Aykan Erdemir
Mistreated WWII Veterans
Trials Of Henry Kissinger (youtube)
Indigenous Australians during WW1 and WW2
List: Australian Aboriginal Soldiers in WWI and WWII
Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders Studies
28 (Maori) Battalion - Greece and Crete (WW2)
The Māori infantrymen earned a fearsome reputation for their skill with the bayonet.
C Company haka party meet the King of Greece in June 1941 at their camp in Helwan, Egypt
C COMPANY HAKA (Audio)
Māori Battalion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
28th Maori Battalion (Home)
28 (Maori) Battalion | NZETC (ebook)
28 (Maori) Battalion - Greece and Crete
75(nz)squadron (New Zealand)
Aboriginals and the Canadian Military
First Nations contributions to WW I and WW II: Lest we forget (Canada)
The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan | Details
Aboriginal Veterans Tribute homepage
First Nations Veterans Memorial - Committee
17 BRAVE CATS HELPED THE SOLDIERS WIN THE WAR DURING WWI
HD Historic Archival Stock Footage WWII - Paratroop Mascots Make First Jumps 1943
Warrior Cats Compilation
Dogs Parachute Solo [HD]. The first lot of paratroop dogs are training for an Arctic Rescue in Canada. The second clip is of a dog called 'Chips' - who is carrying medical supplies and is likely to be in training for WW2.
West Point Mascots Documentary
The little-told story of the massive WWII pet cull
Remembering the British 'pet holocaust': WW2's slaughtered cats and dogs
How cats played a key wartime role
...Aside from doing rodent patrol, cats were also used to detect gas. (This was, after all, the first war that saw the large-scale use of chemical warfare.) The Brits “drafted” 500 felines for this particular duty; it was a canary-in-a-coal-mine mission, as cats succumbed much more quickly to the fumes than humans did….
A victim of the French Revolution:
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (French), considered the father of modern chemistry:
Antoine Lavoisier - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Lavoisier was guillotined during the French revolution (the judge said: The Republic needs neither scientists nor chemists.....);
No. 728: Death of Lavoisier
This is one example of how Lavoisier dealt with fraud:
Adulteration of tobacco
The Farmers General held a monopoly of the production, import and sale of tobacco in France, and the taxes they levied on tobacco brought revenues of 30 million livres a year. However this revenue began to fall because of a growing black market in tobacco that was smuggled and adulterated, most commonly with ash and water. Lavoisier devised a method of checking whether ash had been mixed in with tobacco: "When a spirit of vitriol, aqua fortisor some other acid solution is poured on ash, there is an immediate very intense effervescent reaction, accompanied by an easily detected noise." Lavoisier also noticed that the addition of a small amount of ash improved the flavour of tobacco. Of one vendor selling adulterated goods he wrote "His tobacco enjoys a very good reputation in the province... the very small proportion of ash that is added gives it a particularly pungent flavour that consumers look for. Perhaps the Farm could gain some advantage by adding a bit of this liquid mixture when the tobacco is fabricated." Lavoisier also found that while adding a lot of water to bulk the tobacco up would cause it to ferment and smell bad, the addition of a very small amount improved the product. Thereafter the factories of the Farmers General added, as he recommended, a consistent 6.3% of water by volume to the tobacco they processed. To allow for this addition, the Farmers General delivered to retailers seventeen ounces of tobacco while only charging for sixteen. To ensure that only these authorised amounts were added, and to exclude the black market, Lavoisier saw to it that a watertight system of checks, accounts, supervision and testing made it very difficult for retailers to source contraband tobacco or to improve their profits by bulking it up. He was energetic and rigorous in implementing this, and the systems he introduced were deeply unpopular with the tobacco retailers across the country. This unpopularity was to have consequences for him during the French Revolution.
…...The French Revolution had taken at least some direction from the American Revolution, and as such offered the opportunity for tremendous reform of society for the benefit of the common people, but the fervor that characterized the Revolution had turned into fanaticism and parochial, selfish tendencies, resulting in the mass slaughter of innocent people swept up in the hysteria, including Antoine Lavoisier, the Father of Modern Chemistry.
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